所谓语境记忆单词Remember by the context ,也就是将单词置于句子或课文中加以记忆的策略。而在应对托福词汇单词记忆的时候,由于其词汇量大,同时,我们除了学会词汇的拼写之外,还要更好的理解其的使用方法。那么,相信这样的语境记忆方法就是非常的适合了。那么,在以下内容中就为大家带来托福TPO阅读重点词汇语境记忆资料,希望能为大家的备考带来帮助。

  We all know that many more people today are right-handed than left-handed. Can one trace this same pattern far back in prehistory? Much of the evidence about right-hand versus left-hand dominance comes from stencils and prints found in rock shelters in Australia and elsewhere, and in many Ice Age caves in France, Spain, and Tasmania. When a left hand has been stenciled, this implies that the artist was right-handed, and vice versa. Even though the paint was often sprayed on by mouth, one can assume that the dominant hand assisted in the operation. One also has to make the assumption that hands were stenciled palm downward—a left hand stenciled palm upward might of course look as if it were a right hand. Of 158 stencils in the French cave of Gargas, 136 have been identified as left, and only 22 as right; right-handedness was therefore heavily predominant.

  Cave art furnishes other types of evidence of this phenomenon. Most engravings, for example, are best lit from the left, as befits the work of right-handed artists, who generally prefer to have the light source on the left so that the shadow of their hand does not fall on the tip of the engraving tool or brush. In the few cases where an Ice Age figure is depicted holding something, it is mostly, though not always, in the right hand.

  Clues to right-handedness can also be found by other methods. Right-handers tend to have longer, stronger, and more muscular bones on the right side, and Marcellin Boule as long ago as 1911 noted the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neanderthal skeleton had a right upper arm bone that was noticeably stronger than the left. Similar observations have been made on other Neanderthal skeletons such as La Ferrassie I and Neanderthal itself.

  Fractures and other cut marks are another source of evidence. Right-handed soldiers tend to be wounded on the left. The skeleton of a 40- or 50-year-old Nabatean warrior, buried 2,000 years ago in the Negev Desert, Israel, had multiple healed fractures to the skull, the left arm, and the ribs.

  Tools themselves can be revealing. Long-handed Neolithic spoons of yew wood preserved in Alpine villages dating to 3000 B.C. have survived; the signs of rubbing on their left side indicate that their users were right-handed. The late Ice Age rope found in the French cave of Lascaux consists of fibers spiraling to the right, and was therefore tressed by a right hander.

  Occasionally one can determine whether stone tools were used in the right hand or the left, and it is even possible to assess how far back this feature can be traced. In stone tool making experiments, Nick Toth, a right-hander, held the core (the stone that would become the tool) in his left hand and the hammer stone in his right. As the tool was made, the core was rotated clockwise, and the flakes, removed in sequence, had a little crescent of cortex (the core’s outer surface) on the side. Toth’s knapping produced 56 percent flakes with the cortex on the right, and 44 percent left-oriented flakes. A left-handed toolmaker would produce the opposite pattern. Toth has applied these criteria to the similarly made pebble tools from a number of early sites (before 1.5 million years) at Koobi Fora, Kenya, probably made by Homo habilis. At seven sites he found that 57 percent of the flakes were right-oriented, and 43 percent left, a pattern almost identical to that produced today.

  About 90 percent of modern humans are right-handed: we are the only mammal with a preferential use of one hand. The part of the brain responsible for fine control and movement is located in the left cerebral hemisphere, and the findings above suggest that the human brain was already asymmetrical in its structure and function not long after 2 million years ago. Among Neanderthalers of 70,000–35,000 years ago, Marcellin Boule noted that the La Chapelle-aux-Saints individual had a left hemisphere slightly bigger than the right, and the same was found for brains of specimens from Neanderthal, Gibraltar, and La Quina.

  托福核心单词

  Dominance 优势;支配

  原文:Much of the evidence about right-hand versus left-hand dominance comes from stencils and prints found in rock shelters in Australia and elsewhere, and in many Ice Age caves in France, Spain, and Tasmania. 有太多的来自澳大利亚地区的石屋中模板和字迹以及冰河期法国西班牙以及塔斯马尼亚地区的岩洞上搜集到的证据证明右手较之于左手的优势。

  强化记忆:

  Agriculture has lost its dominance in many countries. 农业在许多国家已失去了优势。

  The firm soon achieved complete dominance in the marketplace. 这家公司很快取得了在市场上的绝对支配地位。

  Stencil模板;模板印刷

  原文:Much of the evidence about right-hand versus left-hand dominance comes from stencils and prints found in rock shelters in Australia and elsewhere, and in many Ice Age caves in France, Spain, and Tasmania. 有太多的来自澳大利亚地区的石屋中模板和字迹以及冰河期法国西班牙以及塔斯马尼亚地区的岩洞上搜集到的证据证明右手较之于左手的优势。

  强化记忆:

  The stencil and print process will not change. 模板和印刷工艺无需更改。

  Do you know how to cut a stencil? 你会刻蜡版[打蜡纸]吗?

  Spray 喷图;喷雾

  原文:Even though the paint was often sprayed on by mouth, one can assume that the dominant hand assisted in the operation. 即使是制作一幅画作需要用嘴喷涂,也可以想象惯用手是如何在这一过程中起到协助作用的。

  强化记忆:

  He sprayed paint on the wall. 他把漆喷在墙上。

  We should spray some hairspray on your hair. 我们应该喷些发胶在你的头发上。

  Predominant 卓越的;主要的

  原文:Of 158 stencils in the French cave of Gargas, 136 have been identified as left, and only 22 as right; right-handedness was therefore heavily predominant. 在法国Gargas岩洞中的158个模板中,有136个鉴定确认为左手,只有22个是右手;右手习惯毫无疑问是据绝对主导地位的。

  强化记忆:

  The predominant feature of his character was pride. 他的性格中主要的特点是骄傲。

  Yellow is the predominant color this spring in the fashion world. 黄色是今春时装界的流行颜色。

  Furnish提供;布置

  原文:Cave art furnishes other types of evidence of this phenomenon. 岩洞艺术的其他形式也为这一现象提供了依据。

  强化记忆:

  I will furnish all you need. 我愿供给你所需要的一切。

  We propose to furnish our own house according to our own taste. 我们建议按自己的爱好布置自己的房子。

  Befit 适合;适当

  原文:Most engravings, for example, are best lit from the left, as befits the work of right-handed artists, who generally prefer to have the light source on the left so that the shadow of their hand does not fall on the tip of the engraving tool or brush.例如大多数的雕版都是左起的光照最好,因为是配合惯用右手的工匠的工作,他们经常喜欢让光线从左边照过来以便他们手的影子不会投射在雕板工具或是刷子的末端。

  强化记忆:

  Such actions do not befit you. 这种行为与你不相称。

  You shouldn’t do things that do not befit your status. 你最好不要做这些和你身分不符的事情。

  Engraving 雕刻

  原文:Most engravings, for example, are best lit from the left, as befits the work of right-handed artists, who generally prefer to have the light source on the left so that the shadow of their hand does not fall on the tip of the engraving tool or brush.例如大多数的雕版都是左起的光照最好,因为是配合惯用右手的工匠的工作,他们经常喜欢让光线从左边照过来以便他们手的影子不会投射在雕板工具或是刷子的末端。

  强化记忆:

  Some writing has the precision of a steel engraving. 有的字体严谨如同钢刻。

  Go look in my office, you should find an engraving of a pentagram there. 到我的公务室来看,你能找到五角星形的雕塑。

  Rib 肋骨

  原文:The skeleton of a 40- or 50-year-old Nabatean warrior, buried 2,000 years ago in the Negev Desert, Israel, had multiple healed fractures to the skull, the left arm, and the ribs.在内盖夫的戈壁中被埋了2000多年的一个40-50岁之间的Nabatean勇士的骨架,在他的头部,左臂和肋骨上有多处已愈合的伤痕。

  强化记忆:

  He broke a rib when he fell off his horse. 他从马上摔下来折断了一根肋骨。

  My face was covered with bruises and I had a broken rib. 我的脸上全是瘀伤,肋骨还断了一根。

  Tip末端;顶端

  原文:Most engravings, for example, are best lit from the left, as befits the work of right-handed artists, who generally prefer to have the light source on the left so that the shadow of their hand does not fall on the tip of the engraving tool or brush.例如大多数的雕版都是左起的光照最好,因为是配合惯用右手的工匠的工作,他们经常喜欢让光线从左边照过来以便他们手的影子不会投射在雕板工具或是刷子的末端。

  强化记忆:

  The sleeves covered his hands to the tips of his fingers. 袖子遮住了他的手,一直盖到指尖。

  the westernmost tip of the island 岛的最西端

  Neolithic新时期时期的

  原文:Long-handed Neolithic spoons of yew wood preserved in Alpine villages dating to 3000 B.C. 长条型新石器时代的紫杉木质勺子从史前3000年一直完好的保存到现在。

  强化记忆:

  Cattle were first domesticated in Neolithic times. 新时期时代人类开始驯养牛。

  They were entering upon a new phase in human culture, the Neolithic phase. 他们正进入人类文化的一个新阶段,即新时期时代。

  Yew 紫杉;紫杉木

  原文:Long-handed Neolithic spoons of yew wood preserved in Alpine villages dating to 3000 B.C. 长条型新石器时代的紫杉木质勺子从史前3000年一直完好的保存到现在。

  强化记忆:

  The leaves of yew trees are poisonous to cattle. 紫杉树叶会令牛中毒。

  All parts of the yew tree are poisonous, including the berries. 紫杉的各个部分都有毒,包括浆果。

  Alpine阿尔卑斯山的

  原文:Long-handed Neolithic spoons of yew wood preserved in Alpine villages dating to 3000 B.C. 长条型新石器时代的紫杉木质勺子从史前3000年一直完好的保存到现在。

  强化记忆:

  There are just the Alpine foothills. 这些只是阿尔卑斯山的山麓小丘而已。

  Alpine valleys resonant with the sound of church bells. 回荡着教堂钟声的阿尔卑斯山谷。

  Rub 擦;擦破

  原文:the signs of rubbing on their left side indicate that their users were right-handed. 在它左侧的磨痕证明了他们的主人惯用右手。

  强化记忆:

  Rub the wall down well before applying new paint. 在涂上新油漆之前,先将墙磨平。

  She couldn’t rub off the blood stain on her blouse. 她没法将上衣的血渍擦掉。

  Fiber纤维

  原文:The late Ice Age rope found in the French cave of Lascaux consists of fibers spiraling to the right, and was therefore tressed by a right hander. 在法国的拉克斯岩洞艺术找到的晚石器时代的绳子是由向右旋转的纤维捆成的,当然也就证实了出自右撇子之手。

  强化记忆:

  Eating cereals and fruit will give you plenty of fiber in your diet. 吃谷类食物和水果能多摄取纤维质。

  The muscle fiber of this animal is diseased. 这个动物的肌肉纤维产生了病变。

  Tress 一缕头发

  原文:The late Ice Age rope found in the French cave of Lascaux consists of fibers spiraling to the right, and was therefore tressed by a right hander. 在法国的拉克斯岩洞艺术找到的晚石器时代的绳子是由向右旋转的纤维捆成的,当然也就证实了出自右撇子之手。

  强化记忆:

  The mat tress needs to be aired. 这个床垫需要拿出去凉一凉。

  She is combing her dark tresses. 她正在梳理她那黑发。

  All her beautiful tresses have been sheared off. 她那长长的秀发都给剪掉了。

  Cortex 皮;表层

  原文:As the tool was made, the core was rotated clockwise, and the flakes, removed in sequence, had a little crescent of cortex (the core’s outer surface) on the side. 由于工具的作用,胚子顺时针的旋转的同时,小碎片一点点的去掉,在一侧留下月牙状的表层(石头胚子的表面)。

  强化记忆:

  The visual cortex is activated by merely imagining a musical score. 视觉皮层可以被仅仅想象一张乐谱而激活。(score乐谱)

  The group was studying a poorly-understood region of the visual cortex. 该小组正在研究视觉皮层的一个难以理解的区域。

  Flake 剥落;薄片

  原文:As the tool was made, the core was rotated clockwise, and the flakes, removed in sequence, had a little crescent of cortex (the core’s outer surface) on the side. 由于工具的作用,胚子顺时针的旋转的同时,小碎片一点点的去掉,在一侧留下月牙状的表层(石头胚子的表面)。

  强化记忆:

  Flakes of rust are falling from the old iron pan.一片片的锈从旧铁锅上落下。

  A flake of bone had lodged itself in his knee. 一块碎骨片留在他的膝盖里。

  Rotate 旋转;使转动

  原文:As the tool was made, the core was rotated clockwise, and the flakes, removed in sequence, had a little crescent of cortex (the core’s outer surface) on the side. 由于工具的作用,胚子顺时针的旋转的同时,小碎片一点点的去掉,在一侧留下月牙状的表层(石头胚子的表面)。

  强化记忆:

  You can rotate the wheel with your hand. 你可以用手转动轮子。

  It is best to allow the rotor to rotate freely. 最好让转子自由旋转。

  Clockwise 顺时针方向的

  原文:As the tool was made, the core was rotated clockwise, and the flakes, removed in sequence, had a little crescent of cortex (the core’s outer surface) on the side. 由于工具的作用,胚子顺时针的旋转的同时,小碎片一点点的去掉,在一侧留下月牙状的表层(石头胚子的表面)。

  强化记忆:

  Please turn the key in a clockwise direction. 请顺时针转动钥匙。

  Gently swing your right arm in a clockwise direction. 按顺时针方向轻轻摆动右臂。

  Cerebral 大脑的;理智的

  原文:The part of the brain responsible for fine control and movement is located in the left cerebral hemisphere. 大脑负责良好的控制行动的区域位于脑部的左半球。

  强化记忆:

  His style is far more cerebral than confrontational. 他的执教风格是理智的,而不是过激的。

  We have stopped the cerebral bleeding, but he’s in a comatose state. 我们已止住脑部出血,但他仍陷于昏迷状态。

  Hemisphere 半球

  原文:The part of the brain responsible for fine control and movement is located in the left cerebral hemisphere. 大脑负责良好的控制行动的区域位于脑部的左半球。

  强化记忆:

  In most people, the left hemisphere is bigger than the right. 多数人的左脑比右脑大。

  What is the largest city in the southern hemisphere? 南半球上哪个城市最大?

  Asymmetrical 不对称的;不均匀的

  原文:the findings above suggest that the human brain was already asymmetrical in its structure and function not long after 2 million years ago. 这也证明的人类大脑的机构和功能上的不对称性在两百万年前就已经定型了。

  强化记忆:

  Most people’s faces are asymmetrical. 多数人的脸并不对称。

  Changes in interest rates impact on the economy is asymmetrical. 利率变动对经济的影响是不对称的。

  Specimen 标本;样品

  原文:the same was found for brains of specimens from Neanderthal, Gibraltar, and La Quina. 与之类似的也被发现在尼安德特人,直布罗陀人和拉昆尼亚人种的脑型中。

  强化记忆:

  He refused to provide a specimen. 他拒绝提供血样。

  Each specimen is carefully dissected. 每个标本都被细心解剖。

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